Sunday, April 23, 2017

Literary Analysis Theory

1.     Mimetic Theory
Mimetic theory is one of ancient theories in literature. The word mimetic itself derived from Greek word mimesis which means imitation. The theory of mimetic is very important in literature which the use is knowing how the literary work imitates life. The function of mimetic theory is conveying and teaching readers about positive moral value. 
Sometime now past in the Autumnal Tide, 
When Phoebus wanted but one hour to bed, 
The trees all richly clad, yet void of pride,                   Stanza 1
Were gilded o’re by his rich golden head. 
Their leaves and fruits seem’d painted but was true 
Of green, of red, of yellow, mixed hew, 
Rapt were my senses at this delectable view. 

I wist not what to wish, yet sure thought I, 
If so much excellence abide below, 
How excellent is he that dwells on high?              Stanza 2
Whose power and beauty by his works we know. 
Sure he is goodness, wisdom, glory, light, 
That hath this under world so richly dight. 
More Heaven than Earth was here, no winter and no night. (Contemplation poem)
On the first stanza, the writer use mimetic theory which imitates the beautiful of world. On the second stanza, the writer praise the creator of the beautiful of nature.

2.     Pragmatic Theory
Pragmatic theory is kind of ancient literary theory which emphasis on the relation between the reader and a work. The literary work which has been constructed is treated to achieve certain effects on the audience. Effects may be for the aesthetic pleasure, instruction or any kind of emotion. Pragmatic criticism is concerned, first and foremost, with the ethical impact any literary text has upon an audience.
O Time the fatal wrack of mortal things, 
That draws oblivions curtains over kings, 
Their sumptuous monuments, men know them not, 
Their names without a Record are forgot,                   (Stanza 33)
Their parts, their ports, their pomp’s all laid in th’ dust. 
Nor wit, nor gold, nor buildings scape times rust; 
But he whose name is grav’d in the white stone 
Shall last and shine when all of these are gone. (Contemplation Poem)
That stanza of contemplation poem has many pragmatic for reader. The author wrote such constructed complex meaning about time. There will be intended meaning on this stanza that can be taken as lesson.

3.     Expressive Theory
Expressive theory is one of classical theories in literature that kind of German movement of painting. Later it extended its admission to literary art too. Expressive criticism treats a literary work primarily in relation to the author. It defines poetry as an expression, or overflow, or utterance of feeling, or as the products of poet’s feelings. The theory tends to judge the work by its sincerity to the poets’ vision or the state of mind.
I heard the merry grasshopper then sing, 
The black clad Cricket bear a second part.                                 (Stanza 9)
They kept one tune and played on the same string, 
Seeming to glory in their little Art.          
Shall creatures abject thus their voices raise? 
And in their kind resound their maker’s praise: 
Whilst I, as mute, can warble forth no higher layes.      (Contemplation Poem)
In that stanza, the author express her feeling that she is sad because cannot be like animal which praise to God.

4.     Objective Theory
Objective theory is a theory of literature which focusing to the object as the evidence. The analysis of this theory no need for history or any other extrinsic element. The text here is supreme and once this text is produced the writers fizzles out and the only interpretation to be gotten is what can be inferred from the text, the direct message which the text itself has which has to be inferred within the text. to them there is no correspondence between the universe and the work and we cannot know the true nature of either the audience or the author. The only thing left to study is the work.

Once made, there is
one more Immortal
walking and stalking    (Immortal being)
the living and dying
On that stanza, there are alienation such like once-one, walking-stalking, living dying.
5.     Formalism
Formalism refers to a style of inquiry that focuses almost exclusively on the features of the literary text only. It excludes the biographical, historical, or intellectual contexts. Formalism, also called Russian Formalism, Russian Russky Formalism, innovative 20th-century Russian school of literary criticism. By focusing on literary form and excluding superfluous contexts, Formalists believed that it would be possible to trace the evolution and development of literary forms, and thus, literature itself.
Roses are red,
Violets are blue;     (Roses are red)
Sugar is sweet,
And so are you.
That poem has a rhyme of ABAB. 

6.     New Criticism
New criticism is a formalism development in literary theory. It dominated American literary criticism in twentieth century. Close reading is its way in analyzing literary work. It means that close reading is used for analyzing intrinsic element. It is useful to discover how a work of literature functioned as a self-contained, self-referential as aesthetic object.
Star light, star bright,
First star I see tonight;            (Star Light, Star Bright)
I wish I may, I wish I might,
Have the wish I wish tonight.
            The theme of that poem is hope. It can be seen from the wish which is stated by the author means pray to god.

7.     Structuralism 
Structuralist theorists are interested in identifying and analyzing the structures that underlie all cultural phenomena.  They want to understand the "deep structure". Structuralists got the notion that everything could be analyzed in terms of a deep structure from the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. He came up with this idea that language is a "sign system" made up of unchanging patterns and rules. The structuralists who were influenced by Saussure took that deep structure idea even deeper.
When I was one-and-twenty
       I heard a wise man say,
“Give crowns and pounds and guineas
       But not your heart away;         (When I was one and Twenty)
Give pearls away and rubies
       But keep your fancy free.”
But I was one-and-twenty,
       No use to talk to me.
            That poem is having 7676 rhythm. The theme is arrogant. It can be seen that the author ignore what a wise man said.
8.     Post-structuralism
Poststructuralism takes us well beyond the world of New Criticism, which asks us to think about "the text and nothing but the text. Post-Structuralism is a late 20th Century movement in philosophy and literary criticism, which is difficult to summarize but which generally defines itself in its opposition to the popular Structuralism movement which preceded it in 1950s and 1960s in France. Structuralism rejected the phenomenological idea that knowledge could be centred on the human knower, and sought what they considered a more secure foundation for knowledge. A major theory associated with Structuralism was binary opposition. This theory proposed that there are certain theoretical and conceptual opposites, often arranged in a hierarchy, which human logic has given to text. 
The King of France went up the hill
With forty thousand men;                       (The King Of France)
The King of France came down the hill,
And never went up again.
            That poem has a meaning of falling. Came down and never again over there does not only mean lose. It can be mean that the king is dead who does not come up again to the thrown.

9.     Deconstruction
Deconstruction as literary analysis, derived mainly from work begun in the 1960s by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, that questions the fundamental conceptual distinctions, or “oppositions,” in Western philosophy through a close examination of the language and logic of philosophical and literary texts. In the 1970s the term was applied to work by Derrida, Paul de ManJ. Hillis Miller, and Barbara Johnson, among other scholars. In the 1980s it designated more loosely a range of radical theoretical enterprises in diverse areas of the humanities and social sciences.
Go to bed late,
Stay very small.    (Go to Bed Late)
Go to bed early,
Grow very tall.
            Deconstruction as an opposition theory will consider that poem has many meanings. The tall is not only physically tall of body. The word tall in the poem can be tall for luck, goodness, and many other.

10.  Hermeneutic
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical textswisdom literature, and philosophical texts. Hermeneutics was initially applied to the interpretation, or exegesis, of scripture, and has been later broadened to questions of general interpretation. Hermeneutics is a wider discipline which includes written, verbal, and non-verbal communication. 
Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain,
Who after birth didst by my side remain,
Till snatched from thence by friends, less wise than true,
Who thee abroad, exposed to public view,
Made thee in rags, halting to th’ press to trudge,
Where errors were not lessened (all may judge).

            On that poem, the author stated Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain, Who after birth didst by my side remain, we do not know who is Thou meant by the author. In hermeneutic, we can relate it with the history and biography. The word Thou in the poem refer to the author’s book which is published without permission by her brother-in-law

Sunday, June 21, 2015

Pengertian Topik, Tema dan Judul

Topik, Tema, dan Judul mungkin menjadi kendala kebingungan bagi beberapa orang yang hendak menulis. Namun, ketika kita sudah mengetahui perbedaannya kita pasti akan senang untuk menulis.

Topik adalah pokok pembahasan dari penulisan, diskusi, ceramah dll. Ketika kita ingin menulis artikel, pertimbangkan dulu apa topik artikelnya. Misalnya membahas tentang memasak, berenang, melukis,dll. Maka itulah yang dinamakan topik.

Tema adalah pengkhususan terhadap topik. Tema berisikan Topik+Pendapat penulis. misalnya ketika kita ingin menulis artikel dengan topiknya memasak. Lantas kita membuat temanya dengan keinginan kita. Misalnya memasak nasi goreng, memasak tumis kangkung dll.

Lalu apa itu judul?? Judul adalah jiwa/nama dari keseluruhan karangan. Misalnya ketika kita sudah  mendapatkan topik karangannya memasak, dengan temanya memasak nasi goreng. Maka bolehlah kita memberi judul terserah kita misalnya judulnya nasi goreng ala rumahan, nasi goreng lezat, nasi goreng merah pedas dll.

Berikut ini adalah contoh Topik, Tema Dan Judul:


Terdapat beberapa langkah langkah untuk membuat nasi goreng lezat. Pertama-tama tentu persiapkan bumbu yang akan dicampurkan dengan nasi. Persiapkanlah nasi empat piring, udang ukuran sedang yang sudah matang, ayam diiris kotak-kotak yang sudah direbus, mentega, bawang putih, bawang merah, cabai merah besar, garam, dan terasi.  Hidupkan kompor dengan nyala api sedang dengan menggoreng mentega higga melebur. Setelah itu masukkan bumbu bawang putih dan bawang merah yang sudah di uleg. Lalu masukkan nasi kedalamnya. Masukkan cabai merah besar yang sudah diuleg dengan tambahkan sedikit garam bersamaan. Tambahkan terasi lalu tunggu hingga warnanya kemerahan terasa sudah matang. Setelah itu tiriskan ke mangkuk besar dan taburilah diatasnya dengan ayam kotak-kotak yang sudah direbus dengan udang yang sudah dimasak.

Spesifikasi paragraf;

Topik: Memasak nasi goreng
Tema: Langkah-langkah memasak nasi goreng
Judul: Memasak nasi goreng lezat
Kategori: Resep memasak

Nah, setelah tahu apa itu Topik, Tema dan judul, bagaimana perasaan anda saat ini. Tertarikkah anda untuk menulis?


Language Acquisition

The uniqueness of human being is not only on their ability to think but also to speak. The ability to speak is in language competence. Language competence cannot be separated from the terms acquisition and learning. Then, what is acquisition? And what is learning? Acquisition is a process of the children who has learned to acquire their mother language, while learning is a process which is done in a formal education. The use of terms above made contravention between the linguists.
There are two differences theory in a mechanism of language acquisition. They are rationalism and empirism. The pioneer of the rationalism ideology is Noam Chomsky. He said that language competence is innate. It means that each human being that was born has the brain as a language acquisition device, so the language will be acquire naturally. He also stated that the children have natural ability to evolve language, this natural ability works automatically when the children exposure the language.
The second theory is given by B.F. Skinner. His theory is known as empirism or behaviorism. This theory stated that language is a function of reinforcement. It means that parents teach their children by reinforcement in each verbal behavior. By the reinforcement, the children learn to give the name of things, so naming that they see everyday are saved in their memory, and then they do observation in their environment. From this theory can be concluded that the children acquire language by learning and experiencing process that they get from the environment.
If it is true that language acquisition is by the learning process, the process of language acquisition is not instantaneously. It needs long process. The first step begins by the babbling. The children around seventh month begin to babble, try to produce a repeated syllables such as ‘papa’, ‘momo’, ‘tata’, ect. Most of the syllables are the basic consonants and vowels. Then, they acquire their first words, and in just a few months they begin to put words together into sentences.

The explanation above is a process of the language acquisition, especially for first language acquisition. First language is a language that is acquired for the first time, or it can be called mother tongue, while second language acquisition is a language that is acquired after the first language.

Saturday, June 20, 2015

History of Linguistic

Historical linguistics is the study of language change. Commonly, it is known as diachronic linguistics. The term diachronic is derived from Greek dia- ‘’through’’ + chronos ‘’time’’ + -ic. Diachronic linguistics concerned to language change or language over time, for example we study linguistics changes from Old English to Modern English.  While synchronic linguistics refers to a language at a one point in time. 
The changing of language appeared in each period. There are four periods of linguistic changes, Old English, Middle English, Early of Modern English and Modern English. If we want to see the linguistic changes in each period, we can see the changes in translation of the Bible below, as a small sample from various stages of English. 
1.      Old English (The West-Saxon Gospels, c. 1050):
þa æfter lytlum fyrste genēalæton þa ðe þær stodon, cwædon to petre. Soðlice þu aert of hym, þyn spræc gesweotolað.
(Literally: then after little first approached they that there stood, said to peter. Truly thou art of them, thy speech thee makes clear.)
2.      Middle English (The Wycliff Bible, fourteen century):
And a litil aftir, thei that stooden camen, and seiden to Petir, treuli thou art of hem; for thi speche makith thee knowun.
3.      Early Modern English (The King James Bible, 1611):
And after a while came vnto him they that stood by, and siade to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them, for thy speech bewrayeth thee.
4.      Modern English (The New English Bible, 1961):
Shortly afterwards the bystanders came up and said to Peter, ‘surely you are another of them; your accent gives you away!’ (Campbell, 1998: 7).

It is common for one language to take words from another language and make them part of its own language (loanwords), and the process of it is called borrowing. In borrowing, of course, there are two or more languages that mixed up with the borrowing; the language which borrows or recipient language and the language which is borrowed from or donor languages.
There are some matters that we have to know in borrowing. The first is about loanword. Loanword is a word which has been ‘borrowed’ from another language. A word that originally was not part of the vocabulary of the recipient language but was adopted from some other and made a part of the borrowing language’s vocabulary, for example, Old English did not have the word pork; this became an English word only after it was adopted from French porc ‘pig, pork’,borrowed in the late Middle English period, so the word pork is a French loanword in English. French has also borrowed words from English, for example bifteck ‘beefsteak’, and see the example of English’s words that was borrowed from another language;

English’s words
Donor words and its country
from Malay kechap, taken by Dutch as ketjap
from Spanish chocolate
from French fleur
from Spanish tomate
from French jus
from Old Frech paneterie
from Germanic people via Latin piper
and so on

In English case, linguistic change was happened because of some colonizer came to England, such as Roman, German, Scandinavian, France, and so on. Of course, when new people and new language had come to a country, the amalgamation between two peoples and also two languages appeared between them and it will influence to the native language.
We can take the history of other countries, when they came to England. Roman as the first colonizer, conquered some districts in England, then brought Christian religion to England, whereas at that time the People of England as paganism. In this case, Roman used Latin as the language in the church and also in the Bible. Of course, people of England learned Latin, and automatically two languages mixed in England.
The second new comer was German. German (Anglo and Saxon) came to England not for conquered, but they came to England because of an appeal for help of Celt (one of the district in England that was conquered by Roman).
The third of new comer in England was Scandinavian (Denmark). When Scandinavian came to England, the amalgamation of two peoples appeared between them. Of course, it had impact to the English, for example: Scandinavian countries it retained its hard sk sound. Consequently, while native words like ship, shall, fish have sh in Modern English, words borrowed from the Scandinavians are generally still pronounced with sk: sky, skin, skill, scrape, scrub, bask, whisk.
The next of colonizer was Norman (the people from French; Normandy). When Norman came to England, English was used for the lower class and middle class, whereas French was used for the upper class and middle class. In this period, two languages also mixed in England’s society. The middle class should learn two languages (English and French) because their position as a bridge, that was to connect between lower class and upper class. The lower class also learned French because they had married with the Norman. The influence of the foreign languages to English was not only in words form but also pronunciation, grammatical gender, adjective, definite article, syntax and so on. All of them gave impact to the linguistic change. 


How to write a Comparison/Contrast paragraph?

Comparison shows similarities between persons, places, things, ideas, or situations.
Contrast points out the differences between persons, places, things, ideas, or situations.

 Two Basic Methods for Organizing Comparison / Contrast Paragraphs
1. If you let A and B stand for the two things (subjects) being compared, then you can use the block method in which you tell all about A, then tell all about B. Thus you discuss A in a block and B in a block.
2. If you let A and B stand for the two things (subjects) being compared, then you compare them point by point. Every time you say something about A, you also say something about B – right in the same sentence or in the sentence immediately following.

 The Body
Once you have decided on a good topic sentence, list all the points of comparison/ contrast that you can think of. Next, review the list and eliminate any points, which are irrelevant or unimportant. Now, organize your details in a logical sequence, and begin your rough draft.

The Conclusion
The most effective conclusion for a comparison/contrast paragraph is usually a final sentence, which reinforces the controlling idea. e.g., If you could see Tuffy and Hector together, you could scarcely help laughing at the contrast between these two household playmates.

A Good Example of the Block Method:
Students who have Mr. Ali and Mr. Risky are immediately aware of the difference in the lecturing manner of each teacher. Mr. Ali has a pleasant voice, which helps hold the interest of the students. He pronounces clearly in a rhythmic pattern emphasizing key words. His moderate tone and inflected words make his lectures interesting. Mr. Ali also adds humor to his subject, and he welcomes questions from students who don’t understand the material. He takes his time and explains slowly. He tries to make sure that his students understand a concept before he moves on to something new, and he is very enthusiastic about his subject. Mr. Risky, on the other hand, has a different tone, pronunciation, expression and attitude from Mr. Ali. He has a booming voice, which commands rather than teaches, and sometimes it is hard to understand because he runs his words together. His lectures are not as interesting as those of Mr. Ali, either, because Mr. Risky speaks in a boring monotone. He also hates to be interrupted; feeling that he must cover everything. Mr. Risky teaches every class in a serious, determined mood. Thus, as the above points illustrate, the lectures of Mr. Ali and Mr. Risky are quite different.

A Good Example of the Point-by-Point Method:
Students who have Mr. Risky and Mr. Ali are immediately aware of the difference in the lecturing manner of each teacher. Mr. Ali has a pleasant voice, which helps hold the interest of the students. Mr. Risky, however, has a booming voice, which commands rather than teaches. Mr. Ali pronounces clearly in a rhythmic pattern emphasizing key words. On the other hand, Mr. Risky mumbles, running his words together. The moderate tone and inflected words of Mr. Ali make his lectures more interesting than those of Mr. Risky, who speaks in a boring monotone. Mr. Ali also adds humor to the subject, whereas Mr. Risky is always serious about each lesson. Mr. Ali welcomes questions from students who don’t understand the material, as compared to Mr. Risky who hates to be interrupted. Mr. Ali takes his time and explains slowly, whereas Mr. Risky rushes through each lesson. Mr. Ali is very enthusiastic about his subject: he tries to make sure everyone understands a concept before he moves on to something new. Mr. Risky, however, is always in a determined mood; he feels that he must cover everything. Each teacher has a different voice, tone, pronunciation, expression, and attitude: and as a result, their lectures are quite different.  


Appreciation on When I was one-and-twenty poem

When I was One-and-Twenty
I personally, consider that this poem is very great poem which I never read than ever. Seven six seven six are the rhythm of this poem at the beginning till the end. So that is why, this poem can be sung as a song. The theme of this poem is about regret. In which the young man ignored the advice of a wise man in the past. The wise man in the poem is an older man than the speaker who has many experiences.
Housman began his interesting poem with compound adjective word which is hyphenated, One-and-Twenty. Although the word Twenty one was able for use but he chose the word One-and-Twenty as the characteristic of his poem. The word One-and-Twenty also helps the rhythm arrangement of his poem to be seven six rhythm. We can take a look the evidence by counting the syllable of each line of the poem. The last sentences of this poem are the key words for the theme of this poem. In which the young man is in two-and -twenty then he says; and 'Oh'  'tis true 'tis true.  His statement as if describes to us about his regret of his ignoring advice of a wise man with the sentence "No use to talk to me" in the age One-and-Twenty.
When I read this poem, it reminds me to my beloved kyai in the past. At that time, he was advising me and my friends about hadist of Prophet Muhammad; Igtanim khomsan qobla khomsin (Prepare the five before the five). He was advising me and my friends about one of the five which about Syabaabaka qobla haromika (Your young before your old) spiritually. Oh, now I miss him so much.


Pengalaman pertama ke KFC

Restoran cepat saji KFC adalah sebuah restoran waralaba yang bercabang diseluruh dunia termasuk juga di Indonesia. Nama KFC sendiri adalah singkatan dari Kentucky Fried Chicken. Nama Kentucky pada singkatan tersebut adalah nama kota terbesar di wilayah Louisville Negara bagian Amerika Serikat. Didirikan pada tahun 1930 dengan pendirinya yaitu Harland Sanders. Restauran yang terkenal dengan ayam gorengnya didalam Timba/Bak ini cukup familiar dengan lidah orang Indonesia. Dengan menyebut “Ayam kentaki” mungkin sudah terbenak dalam pikiran anak-anak bahwa ayam tersebut sangat enak dan lezat.
Ketika saya mengunjungi salah satu restauran KFC di Surabaya, tepatnya di jalan Diponegoro. Pada saat itu tanggal 16-06-2015 sehabis pulang kuliah saya tertarik untuk masuk dan makan di restauran KFC. Dengan memarkir sepeda motor tepat disamping restauran, saya langsung masuk menuju pintu utama. Setelah saya masuk, terpampanglah garis antrian didepan kasir yang pada saat itu tidak terlalu banyak pembeli. Lantas saya langsung ikut antri dibelakang sendiri. Setelah tiba giliran untuk memesan, saya langsung memesan paket super besar sebagaimana gambar diatas tempat kasir. Paket tersebut berharga Rp. 27.500,-  dengan paket isi minuman berkola satu gelas, ayam besar satu jenis, dan nasi yang dibungkus satu jenis.
 Setelah mendapatkan pesanan, langsung saya menentukan tempat duduk yang akan saya singgahi untuk makan. Kursi dipojok depanlah yang saya pilih sebagai tempat duduk. Sembari mencopot tas dari punggung, saya melihat beberapa orang memencet-mencet tombol yang bertuliskan Chili Sauce dan Tomato Sauce. Lantas saya juga tertarik untuk memencet tombol tersebut sebagai sauce. Saya hampiri tombol tersebut dengan memilih yang Chili Sauce/Pedas sebagai saos ayam goreng.
Pada gigitan pertama, “Krenyes-krenyes” rasanya sangat beda dari ayam kebanyakan. Apa mungkin hal tersebut dikarenakan tulisan “The secret recipe” yang terpampang pada tembok sebelah kiri saya. Namun entahlah, apapun resepnya yang penting saya merasakan kenikmatan pada malam itu. Satu lagi yang menjadi ciri khas restauran KFC adalah minuman bersodanya seperti Fanta, Sprite dll. Pada saat itu minuman bersoda saya adalah Pepsi hitam. Tak terbayang betapa nikmatnya setelah makan ayam goreng lalu minum minuman bersoda.
Setelah puas menyantap hidangan makan malam, saya langsung teringat dosen favorit saya berkata kepada saya dan teman-teman saya disela-sela pelajaran “Kalau punya anak, bawalah sekali-kali ke KFC, supaya tidak dibawa oleh orang lain kesana.” Kalimat tersebut tentu membutuhkan penafsiran sastra yang amat dalam. Bahwa ketika kita mempunyai anak maka bawalah sekali-kali anak kita ketempat hiburan seperti karaoke, ke pantai termasuk juga di KFC. Agar supaya anak kita ke depan puas dengan masa kecilnya dan enggan untuk diajak pergi pergi oleh orang lain ketika besar nanti.
    Satu hal yang membuat saya bingung setelah makan adalah cuci tangan. pada saat itu saya makan tanpa sendok dengan kata lain makan dengan tangan. Lalu saya bingung bagaimana membersihkan tangan saya sehabis makan. saya berpikir sejenak sembari melihat balon-balon indah disamping-sampping tembok dan menemukan ide untuk pergi ke toilet. Langsunglah saya menuju ke toilet. Ketika berada didepan toilet saya melihat wastafel yang terbuat dari aluminium, namun wastafel itu tidak memiliki tombol sama sekali. Saya berpikir sejenak tentang wastafel tersebut dengan membayangkan untuk menyentuh wastafelnya. Lalu saya memegang wastafel tersebut dengan harapan wastafel tersebut berfungsi dan mengeluarkan air. Ternyata eh ternyata ketika saya memegang wastafel tersebut dengan sedikit kaget saya merasa wastafel tersebut nyetrum. Dengan tersenyum saya memegang tangan saya dan menemukan ide lagi untuk menempatkan tangan saya dibawah wastafel tersebut. Ternyata benar dugaan saya bahwa wastafel tersebut adalah otomatis. Buktinya dengan menaruh tangan saya dibawah wastafel tersebut, wastafel tersebut langsung mengeluarkan air.
Kembali ke tempat duduk semula, sejenak saya beristirahat sebelum menuju ke rumah. Sambal menikmati suasana restaurant cabang amerika tersebut saya melihat beberapa kasir sibuk dengan pesanan para pembeli. Restaurant tersebut tercukupi oleh cahaya lampu di setiap sudut ruangan. Oleh karenanyalah ruangan tersebut terlihat menarik dibagian luar ruangan. Dengan warna tembok merah dan putih yang menjadi warna khas restauran tersebut. Sebagian tembok dilapisi dengan balon-balon yang seolah-olah mirip dengan ruangan anak-anak.
Puas dengan segala kondisi yang cukup memanjakan pada malam itu, lantas saya menggendong tas saya kembali untuk pulang. Keluar melalui pintu utama, langsung menuju ke tempat parkiran dimana saya memarkirkan sepeda v-ixion saya. Lalu pulanglah dengan semilir angin malam yang sangat segar menyelimuti seluruh tubuh.


Friday, June 19, 2015

Puisi Kegagalan

Ketika kenyataan 
Tak seperti harapan
Apa yang diinginkan 
Tak seperti yang diimpikan
Lantas apa yang dapat kita lakukan
Semua itu, adalah takdir tuhan
Tak ada guna kata penyesalan
Kerana semua telah berjalan
Hanya pada tuhan kita haturkan
Semoga diberi kemudahan jalan
Ya alloh ya robbi ya rohman
Berilah cahaya penerangan
Bagi kami yang butuh kasih sayang
Bagi kami yang butuh kasih sayang.


Sunday, April 19, 2015

Modals of Necessity (must, have to and have got to)

How to express necessity or obligation? 
To express necessity or obligation we can use the modal verbs “must,” “have to” and “have got to”. 

  • ·       Must is the strongest and most serious modal verb of the three and is most common in writing. It is unusual to use “must” in questions.I must study tonight. Is mean strong obligation there is no optional.
  • ·       Have got to is most common in informal speech. It is not used in questions. I have got to study tonight. = I must study tonight.
  • ·       Have to be the most commonly used modal of obligation and common in Informal and Formal. It is useful for forming questions and negatives.

Be careful! The subject and verb must agree for he/she/it subjects and the question form requires “Do/Does/Did”.

Example  of  have/has to
I have to study tonight.
Do I have to study tonight?
Yes, I do.
She has to study tonight.
Does she have to study tonight?
No, she doesn't.

Remember: “have got to” and “have to” are modal verbs and require a simple verb to follow them. The “to” is part of the modal, it is not an infinitive “to”.
There is only one way to express past time with these modal verbs: HAD TO. (There is no past tense of must/have got to.)

For example:
Present Time
Past Time
We must show our passport at the airport.
Last night, we had to show our passport at the airport.
have got to pay my phone bill soon.
had to pay my phone bill this morning.
They have to go to the meeting today.
They had to go to the meeting yesterday.

Pronunciation notes:
The modal verb have got to is often contracted as: I've got to and sounds like “I've gotta...”
The modal verb have to often sounds like: “I hafta...” or “She hasta...”
gotta”, “hafta”, and “hasta” cannot be used in written English. They are only used in speaking.

Question A…
  1. Son: Mom, I don't want to clean my room. _________________ it right now?
    Mother: Yes, right now.
    1.     Do I must clean
    2.     Do I have to clean
    3.     Have I to clean
  2. In order to log on to the Internet, Sally __________ her user I.D.
    1.      must enter
    2.      has got to entering
    3.      have to enter
  3. Friend: _________________________ pay to see the doctor?
    Brother: No, she ________________ because she has medical insurance.
    1.      Must your sister / mustn’t
    2.      Do your sister have to / don't
    3.      Does your sister have to / doesn't
  4. When a police officer asks to see your driver's license, you _____________ to him/her.
    1.      have got show it
    2.      must to show it
    3.      have got to show it
  5. If you have a pet dog, you _____________ feed it every day or it will die!
    1.      have got to
    2.      has got to
    3.      have got
  6. Mr. Wu: Hi, Mark. Where's your dad?
    Mark: Oh, he ______________ to work because there was an emergency.
    1.      had to go
    2.      had got to go
    3.      musted go
  7. According to the law, drivers ______________ at stop signs.
    1.      must stop
    2.      must stopping
    3.      must to stop
  8. If Richard wants to become a professional musician, he ______________ every day.
    1.       has to practice
    2.       haves to practice
    3.       have to practice

Question B…..

1. New drivers ……. take a test in order to get a driver's license. They have no choice.

2. A: …….  go to work today? B: No, I don't because it's Sunday.

3. John ……… finish the report quickly because the deadline is today at 4 pm.

4. A: Jennifer lost her passport. …… get a new one? B: No, she ……... She found it in her purse.

5. I'm sorry, Mom. I ……… call you back later. My cell phone battery is dying.

6. Canadians ……….. pay taxes every year. It's the law.

7. Sasha ….. email her homework to her teacher because she forgot to take it to class yesterday.

8. A: Does Joseph  …….. study very much tonight? B: No, he doesn't. He reviewed a lot last night and he understood everything well.

Good luck..